In Short: US List of Potential New Russian Sanctions

The White House has prepared a new list of sanctions against Russia. This time the target is the contractors of the Russian defense industry.
30.10.2017
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Donald Trump’s administration has submitted the list of Russian companies against which sanctions may be imposed from January 2018 to Congress. This means that any countries and third parties that make “significant transactions” with companies on the list may themselves be penalized. This includes accounts freezes, limitation of lending and withdraw US visas from their employees.

The sanctions are imposed for Russia's actions in Eastern Europe, Syria and actions during the presidential elections in the US in 2016, writes The New York Times. The list is not final yet and does not presume an automatic imposition of sanctions.

Our publication looked into the list: it includes 38 companies and departments, most of which are already under American sanctions. Rosoboronexport, Rostec and its subsidiaries, United Aircraft Corporation, its subsidiaries - Sukhoi Aviation JSC and Tupolev JSC, Kalashnikov Concern JSC are on the list.

On October 23, the Committee on Oversight of the House of Representatives of the US Congress began to study the deal concluded during President Obama between Rosatom's subsidiary Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) and Canadian Uranium One. In 2009, the subsidiary received a 16.6% stake in the Canadian company entitled to extract uranium in the United States.

The deal was concluded when Hillary Clinton was the US Secretary of State. In 2013, Atomredmetzoloto consolidated Uranium One. In the US, it is suspected that the relationship was facilitated by links between Russian investors and the Clinton family: the American family could help Rosatom for donating to their fund.

At the end of October 2014, the president of Tenam Corporation, Vadim Mikerin, was detained in the US on suspicion of receiving kickbacks in exchange for contracts for transporting uranium.

Tenam is the lower-tier subsidiary of state corporation Rosatom. It was established in 2010 by Rosatom’s foreign trade company Tekhsnabexport for the direct access to the US uranium products market. Mikerin has been in charge of Tenam since May 2010. An important detail: Vadim is the son of Evgeny Mikerin, who in the 1980-1990's, held key positions in Russia’s Ministry of Nuclear Energy.

In 2011, Mikerin needed an intermediary to receive bribes. To do this, he used company Nexgen owned by Rubizhesky, a US citizen. The bribes were formalized as fees for consultations.

ENGINEERS AND INTELLIGENCE

Among the organizations included in the list of the “intelligence sector”, apart from the FSB, the GRU and the SVR, there is the Autonomous Noncommercial Professional Organization Professional Association of Designers of Data Processing and Digital Arms and Protection LLC, which had already appeared on the sanctions lists.

Professional Association of Informatics Systems Designers was established by the scientific and production educational organization Styx at the Russian Academy of Sciences and JSC National Cartographic Corporation in 2000.

There is practically no information on Styx: it is not listed in commercial databases of counterparties, although it has an official TIN. Presumably, it was established by three organizations: the International Union of Public Associations “International Confederation of Associations of Inventors and Innovators” (inactive), Sibzoloto LLC and OJSC NPO Khimavtomatika.

From the company’s state contracts (854 million rubles) it follows that the Association worked with the Central Base Customs, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and PJSC Tupolev.

The company has the same end-owners as CJSC National Cartographic Corporation (winded up in 2015). It was founded by CJSC Institute for Political and Military Analysis, JSC Scientific-PF Patris-Elkart, Panorama Cadastre LLC and production and commercial company AOZT Patris.

Presumably, the final beneficiaries of these companies are Alexander Sharavin and Lyudmila Sharavina. According to public information, Sharavin is a military analyst, political scientist and cartographer. He is a member of the Public Council under the Ministry of Defense.

In the early 1990s, he was the head of the group of national security studies and the development of the military doctrine of the Center for Military Strategic Studies of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces.

In addition, Sharavin headed the information and analytical department of the movement called Our Home – Russia; he was the coordinator of the movement’s electoral headquarters from June 1995 to February 1996.

From December 1998 to October 1999 Sharavin was a member of the Organizing Committee of the coalition Pravoye Delo (later – Soyuz Pravykh Sil), the head of the election headquarters in Moscow.

In 2000, he established a political public movement in support of the armed forces called Citizen. Later, the movement was transformed into a “new right” party; its name remained. The movement was abolished in 2006.

According to the Focus.Kontur datebase, Alexander Sharavin is the director and founder of more than 14 legal entities. Of these, only six still function. Among them, the Russian Cultural Center named after Saint Andrey Bogolyubsky, the non-profit partnership Soyuzgeoninform, the ANO Research Institute for the Development of National Resources, and the international foundation of Friedrich von Hayek. On its official website, it is said that the fund was established “in Russia to finance research in the field of theory and practice of neo-liberal policy.” The fund has a representation in the United States.

HACKERS AND INTELLIGENCE

The second company, which fell under sanctions in 2016, is not public. Alisa Shevchenko, the head of Digital Arms and Protection LLC, gave the only interview to Forbes magazine in 2014. The head of the company started in Kaspersky Lab as a virus analyst. According to Forbes, in 2013, the company was to begin work in Singapore.

Shevchenko registered her first company, Esage, in 2009, wrote the magazine. However, such a company has never officially existed. The successor company, Zorsecurity, was established in 2012.

As Shevchenko told Forbes, Esage analyzed various organizations’ cyber defense. She received orders from the system integrator of DialogueScience, which serviced contracts of the Ministry of Defense, FSO, State Duma, Russian banks. Later, Shevchenko began receiving orders from Informzashchita. This company protects state information resources and infrastructure. Among their orders, there was work at the Sochi Olympics and at Russian elections in different years.

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